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Russian scientists improve ReRAM memory cell with defective electrodes
Resistive memory is one of the simplest structures for non-volatile data storage. Employees of the laboratory of atomic layer deposition of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, together with colleagues from Korea, proved the usefulness of electrode defects in improving the parameters of the ReRAM memory cell. The discovery suggested how you can significantly increase the resistance of ReRAM to wear with a noticeable decrease in consumption.
Image source: MIPT
Before proceeding, recall that ReRAM memory is generally a sandwich of two electrodes, between which there is a material that, on command, changes its resistance conditionally from zero to infinity. This is a reversible and non-volatile state, which makes ReRAM ideal for a variety of reasons. Usually one of the electrodes is titanium nitride and the other is platinum. But platinum is poorly compatible with the CMOS process technology and the scientists in the experiment replaced first the upper electrode with ruthenium, and then the lower one.
Experimentally, scientists have found that as the thickness of the ruthenium electrode increases by layer-by-layer spraying, the roughness of its surface increases sharply. What’s most interesting is that the farther from a perfectly flat surface, the better the cell parameters are!
In the experiment, the grain size on the electrode surface grew from 5 to 70 nm as the deposited layers increased. At their maximum size, the cell switching voltage decreased, as did the resistance of the memory cell material responsible for the memory effect, and in both states – in a non-conducting (dielectric) and conducting. In addition, the resource of the device has significantly increased, reaching 50 million rewriting cycles for the case with the roughest electrode.
ReRAM memory cell on the example of a development by Panasonic
To explain the unexpected useful effect of the “non-ideal electrode”, a simplified model was first proposed, and then the sample was examined using conductive atomic force microscopy, which proved the correctness of the theoretical reasoning (for details, see. in an article in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces).
It turned out that with the use of “super-rough” electrodes, the electrical parameters of the ReRAM cell improved due to the localization of the electric field on the slopes of the largest grains on the surface of ruthenium.
“Our results will help to understand how you can significantly improve the new type of memory cells. An increase in the thickness of the ruthenium film leads to an increase in the roughness of the electrode surface. At the same time, areas of local concentration of the electric field are formed on the slopes of the grains, which, in turn, significantly improves the key characteristics of the device. The results give hope that memory devices will have better performance and reliability in the future, ”adds Andrey Markeev, Head of the Atomic Layer Deposition Group at MIPT.